In a fossil free future, we will have to rely on intermittent solar and wind energy in the form of electricity and there will be needs for storage, fuels for long transport and chemicals. One of the most efficient routes for long time storage of sustainable electric energy is to store it as chemical energy. In this presentation I shall present some of the major routes – all involving catalysis - where we first will split water and then subsequently hydrogenate CO2 and N2 ensuring a non-fossil closed loop for our future fuels and chemicals. I shall give an overview of the current status of the catalysts used and show how by identifying current limitations we can design routes forward for finding new and more efficient processes. Over the last five years entire new processes relying on electro-catalysis has emerged and it is interesting to see whether they can represent new and more efficient routes for production of decentralized fuels and chemicals as compared to the conventional centralized thermal catalysis. The largest challenge here is to find ways of protonating CO2 and N2 directly and with high Faradaic efficiency get desired compounds with selectively.