Catalysis plays a pivotal role in the transition to a sustainable future by enabling technologies which are energy efficient and highly selective with low-environmental impact. Biomass, though heterogeneous in nature, features a range of chemical functionalities and has the potential to contribute significantly to the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. Despite the extensive research, the commercial valorization of biomass is limited. A major challenge impeding broad commercialization is the high cost of biomass conversion processes due to low selectivity, necessity for multiple separation and purification steps, low catalyst stability to typical biomass impurities etc. In the lecture, we will show how the integration of chemocatalysis with industrial biotechnology approaches in a cascade mode can lead to selective economical production of high added value biomonomers over inexpensive catalysts, retaining the desired functional groups of biomass. The cascade combination of several reactions can also lead to the efficient production of biofuels. We will also show how the understanding of catalyst deactivation in biofuel production can lead to higher resistance catalysts and efficient regeneration strategies.